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Repost: An Insight into Love

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I was going through the web and found this entry I made in the old Bible Workshop. The article is called “An Insight Into Divine Love” and was posted on March 21, 2006. I am reposting it here because it contains a copy of footnote 52 of Dives in Misercordia which is actually a good biblical theology note on God’s love.


It is not very often that I look at a Bible Dictionary to see how this or that scholar has compiled the nuances of a Hebrew or Greek word to shed light on a particular bible passage. But tonight as I was preparing a post on Psalm 24, McKenzie’s Bible Dictionary was very handy in giving me the materials I wanted. In the article on Psalm 24, I write about the three dimensions of God’s love as expressed in the Hebrew words “chanan” “racham” and “chesed”, God’s unconditional love, motherly love and covenantal love respectively. There is a word for love in Hebrew, and it is “ahab”, the word rendered in the New Testament as “agape”. But since the psalm did not give me an opportunity to write about it, I left it unmentioned. John Paul II in footnotes 60 and 61 of Dives in Misericordia speaks about “chesed” and “rachamim” (viscera misericordiae) as God’s covenantal love and motherly love respectively, what I usually refer to as the masculine and the feminine love of God. In footnote 52, he gives us a more comprehensive treatment of “hesed” “rahamim” and “hanan” in the context of Divine Mercy

In describing mercy, the books of the Old Testament use two expressions in particular, each having a different semantic nuance. First there is the term hesed, which indicates a profound attitude of goodness. When this is established between two individuals, they do not just wish each other well; they are also faithful to each other by virtue of an interior commitment, and therefore also by virtue of a faithfulness to themselves. Since hesed also means grace or love, this occurs precisely on the basis of this fidelity. The fact that the commitment in question has not only a moral character but almost a juridical one makes no difference. When in the Old Testament the word hesed is used of the Lord, this always occurs in connection with the covenant that God established with Israel. This covenant was, on God’s part, a gift and a grace for Israel. Nevertheless, since, in harmony with the covenant entered into, God had made a commitment to respect it, hesed also acquired in a certain sense a legal content. The juridical commitment on God’s part ceased to oblige whenever Israel broke the covenant and did not respect its conditions. But precisely at this point, hesed, in ceasing to be a juridical obligation, revealed its deeper aspect: it showed itself as what it was at the beginning, that is, as love that gives, love more powerful than betrayal, grace stronger than sin. This fidelity vis-a-vis the unfaithful “daughter of my people” (cf. Lam. 4:3, 6) is, in brief, on God’s part, fidelity to himself. This becomes obvious in the frequent recurrence together of the two terms hesed we’e met (grace and fidelity), which could be considered a case of hendiadys (cf. e.g., Ex. 34:6; 2 Sm. 2:6; 15:20; Ps. 25(24):10; [40](39):11-12; [85] (84):11; [138](137):2; Mi.7:20). “It is not for your sake, O house of Israel, that I am about to act, but for the sake of my holy name” (Ez. 36:22). Therefore Israel, although burdened with guilt for having broken the covenant, cannot lay claim to God’s hesed on the basis of (legal) justice; yet it can and must go on hoping and trusting to obtain it, since the God of the covenant is really “responsible for his love.” The fruits of this love are forgiveness and restoration to grace, the reestablishment of the interior covenant.

The second word which in the terminology of the Old Testament serves to define mercy is rahamim. This has a different nuance from that of hesed. While hesed highlights the marks of fidelity to self and of “responsibility for one’s own love” (which are in a certain sense masculine characteristics), rahamim, in its very root, denotes the love of a mother (rehem, mother’s womb). From the deep and original bond–indeed the unity–that links a mother to her child there springs a particular relationship to the child, a particular love. Of this love one can say that it is completely gratuitous, not merited, and that in this aspect it constitutes an interior necessity: an exigency of the heart. It is, as it were, a “feminine” variation of the masculine fidelity to self expressed by hesed. Against this psychological background, rahamin generates a whole range of feelings, including goodness and tenderness, patience and understanding, that is, readiness to forgive. The Old Testament attributes to the Lord precisely these characteristics, when it uses the term rahamim in speaking of him. We read in Isaiah: “Can a woman forget her sucking child, that she should have no compassion on the son of her womb? Even these may forget, yet I will not forget you” (Is. 49:15). This love, faithful and invincible thanks to the mysterious power of motherhood, is expressed in the Old Testament texts in various ways: as salvation from dangers, especially from enemies; also as forgiveness of sins–of individuals and also of the whole of Israel; and finally in readiness to fulfill the (eschatological) promise and hope, in spite of human infidelity, as we read in Hosea: “I will heal their faithlessness, I will love them freely” (Hos. 14:5).

In the terminology of the Old Testament we also find other expressions, referring in different ways to the same basic content. But the two terms mentioned above deserve special attention. They clearly show their original anthropomorphic aspect: In describing God’s mercy, the biblical authors use terms that correspond tO the consciousness and experience of their contemporaries. The Greek terminology in the Septuagint translation does not show as great a wealth as the Hebrew: Therefore it does not offer all the semantic nuances proper to the original text. At any rate the New Testament builds upon the wealth and depth that already marked the Old.

In this way, we have inherited from the Old Testament–as it were in a special synthesis–not only the wealth of expressions used by those books in order to define God’s mercy, but also a specific and obviously anthropomorphic “psychology” of God: the image of his anxious love, which in contact with evil, and in particular with the sin of the individual and of the people, is manifested as mercy. This image is made up not only of the rather general content of the verb hanan but also of the content of hesed and rahamim. The term hanan expresses a wider concept: It means in fact the manifestation of grace, which involves, so to speak, a constant predisposition to be generous, benevolent and merciful. In addition to these basic semantic elements, the Old Testament concept of mercy is also made up of what is included in the verb hamal, which literally means to spare (a defeated enemy) but also to show mercy and compassion, and in consequence forgiveness and remission of guilt. There is also the term hus. which expresses pity and compassion, but especially in the affective sense. These terms appear more rarely in the biblical texts to denote mercy. In addition, one must note the word emet, already mentioned: It means primarily solidity, security (in the Greek of the Septuagint: truth) and then fidelity, and in this way it seems to link up with the semantic content proper to the term hesed.

Originally posted 2009-04-10 00:32:19. Republished by Blog Post Promoter

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